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NITTO SEIKI  --- What is Friction Welding?
 

|What is friction welding?

Towards establishment of a low-carbon society, "low-heat input" which saves as much energy as possible in welding is desired. Friction welding is a solid-state (non-melting) welding process in which welding temperature is kept below melting point and is remarkable in that aspect. 

By lowering the heat input, distortion of the material at the joint is small and there is no emission of spatters or fumes. No additional material or fillers are required and the processing cycle is fast and comes up with repeatable results. Friction welding has many advantages over other joining methods and brings revolution to your manufacturing field.



Process and Cycle
Process

Cycle

1. Initial process
Initial process Set materials on both sides, rotate the material on one side and move the material on the other side forward then bring them into contact.
2. Friction process
Friction process Friction heat is generated at the interfacial surface. Stop the spindle rotation at the time it reaches the temperature which is suitable for welding.
3. Upset process
Upset process Weld is completed by applying upset forge force for predetermined time. Curly flash is formed during that process.
 
Friction Welding Cycle
 
Video


Features
Features

 
Solid-state welding
Equal bonding strength as parent material can be obtained.
Repeatable results and stable quality are achieved.
Joining of dissimilar metal is possible.
All the other area except for interfacial surface has less heat effects.
Welding process which requires only a small partial material makes no need for heavy flash removal.
High energy-efficiency in welding.
No emission of spatters or fumes.
Working environment is good with only a little sparks and fumes.
By making it possible to weld tubes, it is weight saving and contributes to environmental conservation.
Easy machine operation and no skill necessary.
Glossary

[ Solid-state welding ]
Solid-sate welding is a joining method of similar or dissimilar materials not by melting the materials but by pressurizing joining surfaces and heating them with the temperature that is below the melting point of parent material. The fundamentals of the process of solid-state welding are burning off surface contamination layers and gaining clean surfaces, and at the same time bringing the clean joining surfaces into contact and bonding. This method has many excellent advantages such as 1) it enables joining of dissimilar metals or joining of those metals which is difficult in melt-welding, 2) it enables weld of high integrity with high credibility in machine-strength and material quality.
 
[ spatter ] 
Spatters are fine particles that scatters at the time of gas welding and arc welding. Particle size is about 1μm~ several mm. They causes coating defect and has bad effect on quality. The sight of massive spatters scatter is often seen in such images that introduces welding of car body. Spatters weaken the pressing power of electrode and become the cause of deterioration of the weld quality.
 
[ fume ] 
Fumes are metallic vapor that occurs during the welding process and coheres and becomes fine particles.
Inhalation of fumes for a long time brings about symptom called metallic fume fever. It is classified as an occupational disease. Other symptoms are cough, pressure in the chest, thirst, abnormal sensation, and fever. Sometimes pulmonary edema is brought about.



Welding quality
Equal bonding strength as parent material can be obtained. The structure at the welded portion is refined and rigid and stable strength is secured.
Tensile test S45C Cross section of welded portion SUH31B-SUH3B x400Magnification
Tensile test S45C Cross section of welded portion SUH31B-SUH3B x400Magnification


Examples of application
Wide range of applications and installation purposes

Friction welding is widely used in many applications such as automobile, construction equipment, industrial equipment, aircraft, construction machinery, development of resources, and space development, and the purpose for installation varies.
A solution for more increase in quality and more stability in manufacturing; that is "friction welding".
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